Platelet Rich Plasma
Human blood is comprised of Red Blood Cells (RBCs or erythrocytes), White Blood Cells (WBCs or leukocytes), Platelets (thrombocytes) and the Plasma in which the cells are suspended. Plasma, which is mostly water, constitutes 55% of blood fluid. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The most abundant cells in human blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport.
Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) are injections based upon the premise that the Platelets in your blood contain the growth factors critical for healing various musculoskeletal injuries through tissue regeneration and new blood flow to the treatment area (neovascularization). The injection is prepared by drawing blood from the patient and then spinning the fluid twice in a centrifuge. The two stages of centrifugation are designed to separate PRP from platelet-poor plasma and red blood cells, thereby, yielding a high concentration of these growth factors. This high concentration of growth factors found within PRP are the basis for the use of PRP in tissue repair. Further, the platelets collected in PRP are “activated” by the addition of calcium chloride. Activation induces the release of the mentioned factors from alpha granules.
The growth factors and cytokines present in PRP include:z
- platelet-derived growth factor
- transforming growth factor beta
- fibroblast growth factor
- insulin-like growth factor 1
- insulin-like growth factor 2
- vascular endothelial growth factor
- epidermal growth factor
- Interleukin 8
- keratinocyte growth factor
- connective tissue growth factor
Results from PRP Treatments can take weeks to months and vary from patient to patient. PRP is a Pro-Inflammatory procedure as it induces a healthy inflammation, allowing the body’s own immune system to heal itself. The expected results are a substantial increase in blood flow to the treated area which will aid in tissue repair.